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    The Museum Of The Jewish Soldier In World War II

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    Post by Battalion Colours on Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:29 pm

    Although rarely mentioned, Jewish Canadians have played a role in all of their conflicts. It's good to see they are represented in this museum.


    http://www.jwmww2.org/show_item.asp?levelId=65021

    The Museum Of The Jewish Soldier In World War II Flag10

    Canada
    Number of Soldiers: 16,883
    Number of Fallen: 429
    Number of Medal Owners: 200

    Description

    Canada was a British Dominion in World War II.
    With the outbreak of the war there was no enthusiasm among its Citizens for sending Forces to Europe, as there had been in World War I, in which Canadian Forces lost many fighters.
    In the summer of 1940, after the fall of France, Canada began to hear demands for contribution to the war effort, including the mobilization of its Industry towards that end. A process of intensifying cooperation on security with the U.S.A. was initiated as well, against the background of fear by both Countries of German threats on the East Coast and of the Japanese on the West Coast.

    At the war’s eruption, the Canadian Armed Forces were organized in a similar fashion to that of the British Military – 3 Arms – but small in dimension and equipped with obsolete weapons, and lacking proper training for war.
    The Ground Force numbered about 4,200 Officers and Soldiers, and had 2 Light Tanks.
    The Navy numbered about 2,000 persons, and had a limited number of Vessels, some modern and some obsolete.
    The Air-Force numbered about 300 Officers and about 2,700 Soldiers, and had some 270 Aircraft, most of them in low airworthiness condition.
    In addition, there were around 51,000 Militia-Men available in reserve.

    The war caused a complete turnaround in the attitude of the Canadian citizens towards the Military’s disposition.
    Recruitment of volunteers to the Army was launched, and in December, 1939, the first Canadian Division left for Europe. Enlistment continued, and 122,000 more people volunteered in 1940.
    At the conclusion of the war, the Ground Forces stood at over 730,000 persons.
    In 1942, the Force buildup plan was secured. It comprised, raising the Canadian First Army of 2 Corps, which included 3 Infantry Divisions, 2 Armored Divisions and another 2 Armored Regiments. Three additional Divisions were raised as well, to protect Canada’s East and West Coasts.
    The 1st Canadian Infantry Division participated in the Campaign in France for a short time and in a most limited manner; the 2nd Division, under the command of the Canadian Corps, joined it in Britain.
    A small Canadian Force was involved in the fighting against the Japanese in Hong Kong, in December, 1941. It absorbed casualties and many of its men were captured.
    The involvement of a larger Force from the 2nd Division in the Raid on Dieppe, in France, in August, 1942, ended worse. Out of approximately 5,000 people, only about 2,200 returned to Britain, about 650 were killed, and about 2,000 were captured.
    A Canadian Force also participated in the Battles against the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands, in 1943.

    The lessons from these Battles were learned well and applied to the forthcoming Campaigns where Canadian Forces took part – the Invasions of Sicily, in July, 1943, and of France, in June, 1944.
    In the Campaign in Italy a Canadian Corps was already fighting under the command of the British Eighth Army, and it played an important role in breaking through the different defensive lines that had been established by the Germans in the Italian “boot”.

    The Canadian 3rd Division and another Armored Regiment participated in the Invasion of Normandy, repelled a number of fierce German attacks, closed the Falaise “pocket”, and advanced into Belgium.
    At this stage, the Canadian Army that also had American, British and other Divisions under its command was put into operation. The 1st Canadian Corps joined it from Italy, in March, 1945, and their Forces crossed the Rhine into Germany. The Army liberated Holland and concluded its missions on the German Coast, east of the Elbe River.

    The Canadian Air-Force sent 48 Squadrons to the war with about 94,000 people, most of them to Europe, where they operated in the framework of the RAF. These Squadrons took part in the Battle of Britain, and in Battles in Malta, the Western Desert and northwestern Europe. Its Transport Airplanes also operated in Ceylon and in the Burma Theatre, this in addition to Coastal defense missions at home.
    The Air-Force’s main contribution was in with the Bomber section. The Canadian Bomber Wing executed one-eighths of the total number of missions that were conducted by entire British Bomber Command, and it also absorbed many losses, in people and in aircraft.

    The Canadian Navy’s chief contribution to the war was essentially in the Campaign in the Atlantic Ocean. Most of its fighting was focused on protecting convoys from German U-Boat Submarine attacks. The Canadian Shipping Industry was mobilized to produce increasing numbers of Vessels for the Fleet. Until the end of 1942, the convoys absorbed many losses from the hits of those Submarines that even dared to enter Canadian territorial waters and attack Vessels from there. Then the turnaround occurred, with the introduction of new anti-submarine weapons that began increasing the number of German Submarines being struck. The Canadian Fleet also participated in operational activity in the English Channel, before and after the Invasion of Normandy, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean. At the conclusion of the war, the Canadian Fleet numbered 365 Vessels of various kinds, including two Aircraft Carriers.

    Overall, the Canadian Army suffered in the war approximately 42,000 dead, upwards of 54,000 wounded, and about 9,000 captured. The Air-Force suffered approximately 17,000 dead, and the Navy lost about 2,000 people and 24 Vessels.

    Around 7% of the total Jewish population in Canada, 16,883 Jews, served in the Country’s Armed Forces. Most of them served in the European Theatre. Of record, 429 fell in battle, 334 were wounded, and 85 were captured by the Germans.
    Canadian Jews served in all Corps and Forces, but many were particularly found in the Air-Force, in various duties and professions. They served as Pilots, Navigators, Gunners, and so on. Many were Officers, with Squadron and Wing Commanders also among them.
    Some 200 Jewish fighters were awarded with all kinds of decorations and marks of distinction: 47 fighters were awarded with the Distinguished Flying Cross; others were awarded with the Military Cross, the Air-Force Cross, the Distinguished Conduct Medal, the British Empire Medal, and so forth.



    This link will take you to a list of Jewish Canadian soldiers which is in their database:

    http://www.jwmww2.org/show_item.asp?levelId=65035&itemId=631&itemType=0&army=100007


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    Post by Battalion Colours on Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:40 pm

    The Museum Of The Jewish Soldier In World War II Niznik10

    Name: NIZNICK, HARRY
    Nationality: Canadian
    Rank: Lieutenant
    Regiment/Service: Royal Canadian Infantry Corps
    Secondary Regiment: Durham Light Infantry
    Secondary Unit Text: attd. 'C' Coy. 8th Bn.
    Date of Death: 09/09/1944
    Service No: CDN/426
    Grave/Memorial Reference: Brit. Plot, Grave 21.
    Cemetery: GEEL (STELEN) CHURCHYARD

    ***Note: Lieutenant Niznick was a CANLOAN officer.


    Last edited by Battalion Colours on Fri Dec 31, 2010 3:46 am; edited 1 time in total


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    Post by Battalion Colours on Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:58 pm

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Dunkelman

    Ben Dunkelman

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Benjamin (Ben) Dunkelman (1913–June 11, 1997) was a Canadian Jewish officer who served in the Canadian Army in World War II and the Israel Defense Forces in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. In Israel, he was called Benjamin Ben-David.

    Educated at Upper Canada College in Toronto, Dunkelman enlisted with The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada and saw action at Caen, Falaise, and the Battle of the Scheldt. His father was David Dunkelman, the founder of the Canadian men's retailers, Tip Top Tailors.[1]

    After the war, Dunkelman returned to Canada, but again decided to travel to war, this time to fight for Israel in the spring of 1948. He arrived there at a time when the Israeli army was short of officers with combat experience, and he became the commander of the 7th Brigade, the country's best-known armored brigade.

    In his autobiography, called Dual Allegiance,[2] Dunkelman tells the story of how, between July 8 and 18, 1948 during Operation Dekel, he led the 7th Brigade and its supporting units as it moved to capture the town of Nazareth. Nazareth surrendered after little more than token resistance. The surrender was formalized in a written agreement, where the town leaders accepted to cease hostilities in return for solemn promises from the Israeli officers, including Dunkelman, that no harm would come to the civilians of the town. Shortly following the capture, Dunkelman received orders[3] from General Chaim Laskov to expel the civilian population in the town, but he refused to implement these orders. The Israeli journalist and translator Peretz Kidron, with whom Dunkelman collaborated in writing Dual Allegiance, reproduced his record of Dunkelman's account of the capture of Nazareth in a book chapter entitled "Truth Whereby Nations Live":
    [less than a day later] Haim Laskov [came] to me with astounding orders: Nazareth's civilian population was to be evacuated! I was shocked and horrified. I told him I would do nothing of the sort -in view of our promises to safeguard the city's people, such a move would be both superfluous and harmful. I reminded him that scarcely a day earlier, he and I, as representatives of the Israeli army, had signed the surrender document in which we solemnly pledged to do nothing to harm the city or its population. When Haim saw that I refused to obey the order, he left.[4]
    A scarce 12 hours after Dunkelman had refused to expel the inhabitants of Nazareth, Laskov had appointed another officer as military governor.[5]
    Two days after the second truce came into effect, the Seventh Brigade was ordered to withdraw from Nazareth. Avraham Yaffe, who had commanded the 13th battalion in the assault on the city, now reported to me with orders from Moshe Carmel to take over from me as its military governor. I complied with the order, but only after Avraham had given me his word of honour that he would do nothing to harm or displace the Arab population. [....] I felt sure that [the order to withdraw from Nazareth] had been given because of my defiance of the evacuation order.[6]
    Dunkelman's defiance of the evacuation order forced Laskov to attempt to obtain sanction from a higher level. However, David Ben-Gurion finally vetoed the order.[5] The Arab inhabitants in Nazareth were never forced to evacuate, in sharp contrast to the surrounding less internationally sensitive towns such as Saffuriya, which Dunkelman had shown no such compunction about clearing.

    There is a bridge on the Lebanese border called Gesher Ben in Dunkelman's honor. His story is told in the film Ben Dunkelman: The Reluctant Warrior.
    [edit]

    References

    ^ Hammond, Karen; Old Times: Leaders and Legends; Winter/Spring 2007; p. 32
    ^ Dunkelman, Ben (1984). Dual Allegiance: An autobiography, Goodread Biography. ISBN 0-88780-127-7
    ^ According to Ben-Gurion's War Diary, Vol. II, these orders came from Moshe Zalitzky (Carmel), quoted in Gelber, Yoav (2006), Palestine 1948, Sussex Academic, Brighton, ISBN 1-84519-075-0, p.166.
    ^ Kidron, Peretz (1988). Truth Whereby Nations Live. In Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens (Eds.). Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question Verso. ISBN 1-85984-340-9, p. 87.
    ^ a b Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7, pp.419-420.
    ^ Kidron, Peretz (1988). Truth Whereby Nations Live. In Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens (Eds.). Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question Verso. ISBN 1-85984-340-9, pp. 86, 87.

    The Museum Of The Jewish Soldier In World War II Pp_11311


    ***Note: Ben Dunkelman is one of the more well known Jewish Canadians soldiers of World War II.


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    Post by Battalion Colours on Fri Dec 31, 2010 3:41 am

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    Warrant Officer Abram Arbour of Winnipeg, Manitoba, was killed in action at Falaise. He was awarded the Military Cross, according to a Department of National Defence release (P.N. 51-45) of February 6, 1945. The citation accompanying the award read: "During the night of August 7, 1944, an infantry regiment attacked and captured the town of Fonteney-le-Marmion. On consolidation one of the companies was allotted the defence of the northern section of the town in the vicinity of battalion headquarters. During the early hours of the morning, August 8, the enemy shelled and mortared the town very heavily. The company commander was wounded and C.S.M. Arbour immediately took over command of the company and completed reorganization of the defence position. At approximately 8 a.m. an enemy counterattack in some strength moved against the company position. This attack was pinned down by small-arms fire, and C.S.M. Arbour personally formed and led a counterattack force to mop up the enemy. With utter disregard for personal danger and with absolute confidence he formed a composite force. Under covering fire from 11 and 12 platoons, they assaulted and killed or captured the enemy force which threatened his company position. C.S.M. Arbour, by his speed in handling a difficult situation, and his superb courage, was directly responsible for the battalion holding and consolidating the objective.” He enlisted with the Canadian Army on September 11, 1939, and went overseas on Aug. 24, 1940. He took part in the fighting at Caen and Dieppe


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    Post by Battalion Colours on Fri Dec 31, 2010 3:45 am

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    Pilot Officer Paul Belkin of Calgary, Alberta, was reported missing after air operations over Japanese territory on October 9, 1943. Enlisting in the air force in 1941, Pilot Officer Belkin trained as an air gunner at Trenton, Ontario, and Mossbank, Saskatchewan. He was stationed in England for a short time before he transferred to India. Later he proceeded to Burma. One day after he was reported missing, his commission was announced. Pilot Officer Belkin was born in Russia.


    ***Note: Quite a few of the Jewish Canadian soldiers were born in other countries (i.e. Poland, United States and Russia).


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    Post by Battalion Colours on Sat Jan 01, 2011 6:12 am

    Even though he was born in Montreal, William Nelson joined the RAF and was one of 98 Canadians who participated in the Battle of Britain. He was also the first Jewish Canadian to be decorated (DFC) in World War II.

    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/ww2/sugar4.html

    "39675 William “Bill” [28]Henry Nelson was Flying Officer with 24 Squadron and born in Montreal, Canada on 2.4.17, son of Henry and Sarafina Nelson of 4885 Cote St, Catherine Rd. He was educated at Baron Byng High and Strathcona Academy and joined the RAF in 1937 after working his way to England. On Sept. 8/9th 1939 he took part as Captain of a bomber in the RAF’s earliest operation, with 8 Whitley’s dropping leaflets in NW Germany. After other operations he also took part in raids on Sylt and over Dunkirk during the evacuation. He was awarded the DFC by the King at Buckingham Palace on 4.6.40, and was the first Canadian Jew decorated in WW2 [29]. His citation read “Nelson carried out many flights over enemy territory, always showing the greatest determination and courage. After one attack on Stavanger, Norway, he encountered a balloon barrage and sent a report to base HQ in time to warn following aircraft”.

    He wrote home that “ I thank God that I shall be able to help to destroy the regime that persecutes the Jews…..”.

    Volunteering for Fighter Command and returning before his leave expired, he flew Spitfires from Hornchurch , shooting down a 109, 110 and damaging another 110 on Aug. 11th 1940 when he took on six 109’s singehanded [30]; damaging a Do 17 on the 13th and destroying three more 109’s on Oct. 17th, 27th and 29th. He was killed on 1.11.40 by a 109 attack over Dover in Spitfire P7312 at 1400 hrs. and crashed into the Channel. He was listed as missing on the 52nd RAF casualty list on Nov 14th but officially presumed killed on May 26th 1941. He was 23 years old, left a wife (Marjorie Isobel) and young son and his name is inscribed on the Runnymede memorial, panel 4. He has an AJEX Chaplain card."


    References:

    [28] “The Splendid Hundred” A Bishop, McGraw-Hill, Toronto 1994 p.154

    [29] “Canadian Jews in WW2 – part 1”, Canadian Jewish Congress 1947, Montreal, page 29.

    [30] “Among the Few – Canadian Airmen in the Battle of Britain” Air Historical Section, Air Ministry booklet 1948 page 22.


    Further information:

    http://www.acesofww2.com/Canada/aces/nelson.htm

    The Museum Of The Jewish Soldier In World War II Nelson10

    RAF F/O - DFC & Bar

    _________________________________________________

    On October 17, 1940, I was Red Two of the leading section of 74 Squadron, flying Spitfires, and detailed to intercept sixty "snappers" reported over Maidstone.
    We climbed rapidly, and at 26,000 feet saw some bursts from our anti-aircraft guns below, and turned towards them. Two Me 109s suddenly appeared by themselves across our bows. The squadron leader, "Sailor" Malan, DFC, immediately got on the tail of the leading 109, and I closed with the outside one.
    They took no evasive action as we came out of the sun, and I fired a burst with slight deflection at 150 yards, down to point blank range. He immediately started a half-roll turn down, white smoke streaming out, obviously glycol.
    I followed him easily at first, firing short bursts, and then more eruptions came from his engine, almost blinding me. Diving down to 2,000 feet, he entered some low cloud vertically. Having got up tremendous speed, I had to start to pull out in order to avoid hitting the ground. I found him difficult to hold in the latter part of the dive, as he went well past vertical, and I had my actuating gear wound fully forward.
    He was seen to crash near Gravesend. The enemy aircraft was coloured dark on top, with a tremendous yellow spinner, and was sky blue beneath.

    _________________________________________________

    Born in Montreal, 2 April 1917
    Home there or Westmount
    Acting Pilot Officer on Probation, RAF, 9 May 1937.
    No.10 Squadron from outbreak of war to 24 June 1940
    No.6 OTU, 24 June to 20 July 1940;
    No.74 Squadron (Spitfires), 27 July 1940
    KIA 1 November 1940

    Specifically listed in AFRO 1292/41 dated 7 November 1941 as a Canadian in the RAF who had been decorated as of that date. Air Ministry Bulletin 801 refers.

    Cards compiled by W/C F.H. Hitchins from squadron records (cards held by Directorate of History and Heritage, CFHQ) detail many sorties.
    He was captain of a Whitley on No.10 Squadron's first wartime operation (8 September 1939, leaflet dropping over northwest Germany) and had numerous adventures thereafter.

    See H.A. Halliday, "Man of Many Talents: F/L William Henry Nelson", Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Summer 1970.

    No published citation other than "for gallantry and devotion to duty in the execution of air operations". Public Records Office Air 2/9413 has recommended citation as passed by Air Ministry Honours and Awards Committee.

    _________________________________________________

    NELSON, F/O William Henry (39675) - Distinguished Flying Cross - No.10 Squadron
    Awarded as per London Gazette dated 31 May 1940.

    This officer has carried out many flights over enemy territory during which he has always shown the greatest determination and courage. On the 20th April 1940, after an attack on Stavager, a balloon barrage was encountered west of the target, a report of which was transmitted to the base in sufficient time to enable following aircraft to be warned.

    NOTE: Annex 1W to this document contains the original recommendation dated 23 April 1940. This indicates that an earlier recommendation had been raised on 12 March 1940; that document might well be most interesting if found (see also P.A. Gilchrist's DFC). The Nelson document of 23 April 1940 reads:

    In addition to the particulars submitted under the proforma dated 12th March 1940, three further missions have been performed as follows:

    On 16 March 1940 the No.4 Group Training Flight down the Ruhr Valley was ordered. On this trip the Rhine was clearly seen, but no traffic of any consequence was noted. A railway marshalling yard was also seen, but unidentified. Other railways, roads and canals were also observed, some of which were identified. Searchlight activity was very intense, as many as 80 lights in a ring together being seen. These made observation of the area very difficult. Very severe weather conditions were met with, and the machine landed at "Sister".

    On 19 March 1940 the task allotted was the night bombing of Hornum. All the bombs were released on the target and straddled the railway line leading up to the base. A great deal of light flak, together with a lesser amount of heavy flak, was encountered and searchlight activity was also very intense. This crew returned to base without anything untoward happening.

    On 20 April 1940 severe weather was encountered during an operation over Norway. Oslo Fiord was completely covered, so this aircraft flew to Stavanger and attacked the aerodrome as an alternative target given by the Station Operations Officer. The attack was successful, hits being registered on the runways. A balloon barrage was encountered to the west of the target after the attack, a report of which was transmitted to the Base in sufficient time to enable following aircraft to be warned.

    Public Record Office Air 2/9412 has the same recommendation with further minutes. On 25 April 1940 the Commanding Officer, RAF Station Dishforth, wrote:

    This officer's determination is outstanding, and he has continued to show courage of a high order in carrying out his tasks. The award of the Distinguished Flying Cross is strongly recommended.

    The Air Officer Commanding, No.4 Group (Air Commodore Alan Coningham) added on 30 April 1940:

    This Canadian officer has carried out many flights over enemy territory, during which he has always shown the greatest determination. His reports and results generally have been successful above the average.

    _________________________________________________

    Victories Include :

    11 Aug. 1940 one Bf.109 destroyed plus
    11 Aug. 1940 one Bf.110 destroyed plus
    11 Aug. 1940 one BF.110 damaged
    13 Aug. 1940 one Do.17 damaged
    17 Oct. 1940 one Bf.109 destroyed
    27 Oct. 1940 one Bf.109 destroyed
    29 Oct. 1940 one Bf.109 destroyed

    __________________________________________

    --- Canadian Aces ---

    _______________________________________________
    On these pages I use info from the Air force Association of Canada's web site
    in Hugh Halliday's excellent Honors & Awards section,
    Newspaper articles via the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation (CMCC)
    as well as other sources both published and private




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