George Frederick Beurling

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    George Frederick Beurling

    Post by Battalion Colours on Sat Nov 28, 2009 4:13 pm

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    George Frederick Beurling, 2 March 1943.


    Over the years many Canadians sought adventure and George Beurling was just one of them. Besides being Canada's leading fighter ace in World War II, he had been recruited in 1948 to fly P-51s for the fledging Israeli Air Force.


    Regards,

    Adam


    George Beurling
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    George Frederick Beurling
    6 December 1921 – 20 May 1948 (aged 26)

    "Buzz" Beurling 2 March 1943
    Nickname "Buzz"
    Place of birth Verdun, Quebec, Canada
    Place of death Rome, Italy
    Allegiance British Empire
    Service/branch Royal Air Force
    Royal Canadian Air Force
    Rank Flight Lieutenant
    Battles/wars World War II
    Awards Distinguished Service Order
    Distinguished Flying Cross
    Distinguished Flying Medal & Bar
    George Frederick "Buzz" Beurling DSO, DFC, DFM & Bar, RCAF (6 December 1921 – 20 May 1948), was the most successful Canadian fighter pilot of the Second World War.
    Beurling was recognized as "Canada's most famous hero of Second World War", as "The Falcon of Malta" and the "Knight of Malta", having shot down 27 Axis aircraft in just 14 days over the besieged Mediterranean island. Before the war ended his total climbed to either 31 [1] or 31 1/3.[2] Beurling's wartime service was terminated prior to war's end. In an attempt to continue combat flying in the postwar era, Beurling lost his life in a crash while delivering an aircraft to Israel.[3]
    Contents [hide]
    1 Early life
    2 Second World War
    2.1 RAF service
    2.1.1 Malta
    2.1.2 War bond drive
    2.1.3 Instructor
    2.2 Royal Canadian Air Force
    2.2.1 Discharge
    3 Death
    4 Legacy
    5 References
    6 External links
    [edit]Early life

    Born in Verdun (now part of Montreal), Quebec, Beurling first took the controls of an aircraft in 1933 and was flying solo by 1938. He left school to work for an air freight company out of Gravenhurst, Ontario and soon gained a commercial license. He had intended to go to China, but was imprisoned for a few months for illegally crossing the border into the United States in an attempt to join the Flying Tigers.
    [edit]Second World War

    With the outbreak of war, Beurling tried to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, but his lack of academic qualifications led to his rejection. He then tried to join the Finnish Air Force (which was fighting the Soviets in the Winter War), but was thwarted when he could not get his parents' permission. Instead, Beurling sailed across the Atlantic on a convoy, landing in Glasgow, intending to enlist in the Royal Air Force. Unfortunately, he had forgotten his birth certificate and had to return to Canada to get it, but after surviving the return trip, the RAF accepted him as a pilot: he was enlisted as Aircraftman 2nd Class No. 1267053.[4]
    [edit]RAF service
    Beurling demonstrated considerable skill in training.[5] In the middle of December, he was posted as a Sergeant Pilot to 403 Squadron, which had just moved to North Weald, Essex. Beurling flew his first (uneventful) combat mission, flying the Spitfire on Christmas Day 1941. He remained with 403 for nearly four months, escorting bombers and flying fighter sweeps across the English Channel. A couple of times, his formation was jumped by German fighters, but he never managed to get off an effective shot in all his time with 403 Squadron.
    By late spring, a decision was made to include only RCAF personnel in RCAF squadrons.[6] Beurling, who was Canadian but an RAF pilot, therefore left his first combat unit for 41 Squadron in Sussex.
    His first two missions with his new squadron were uneventful, but on the third, a sweep over Calais on 1 May, five Focke-Wulf Fw 190s jumped the section. Beurling, who was the "tail end Charlie", the last of the formation, became divided from his flight and his Spitfire suffered a number of serious hits that put half of his guns out of action. Nevertheless, he managed to fire a short burst at a FW 190; the German fighter exploded in mid air. Two days later, as usual for a newcomer, he was assigned again to the number four position. He spotted a lone FW 190, and broke from the flight to pursue it. He claimed the German fighter as destroyed over Cap Gris Nez.[7] On this occasion, Beurling was reprimanded for attacking a target without permission,[8] and became unpopular with his superiors and fellow pilots.
    He then volunteered for a posting overseas. When his ship reached Gibraltar, Beurling learned where he was destined: the island of Malta and No. 249 Squadron RAF.[9]
    [edit]Malta
    Quotes on Beurling in Malta
    He only fired when he thought he could destroy. Two hundred and fifty yards was the distance from which he liked best to fire. A couple of short, hard burst from there and that was usually it. He picked his targets off cleanly and decisively, swinging his sight smoothly through them as a first-class shot strokes driven partridges out of the sky. It was a fluent and calculated exercise... For Beurling the confirmed kill was the thing.[10]
    Nine of his kills on Malta were Italian pilots.[1] About them he used to say: "The Jerrie are probably better over-all pilots than the Italians, but they certainly let the Eyeties do their fighting for them when the going got tough. When we get around to adding the final score for this show I hope somebody thinks of that".[11]
    On July 6, he was flying one of eight Spitfires that were scrambled to intercept three Italian Cant bombers and 30 Macchi 202s, Italy's top-line fighter. The eight Spitfires dived straight into the Italians. In seconds, with one burst Beurling had damaged a bomber. Then, suddenly he was on the tail of a Macchi whose pilot (probably Sergente Maggiore Francesco Pecchiari from 51° Stormo), spotting the Spitfire, plunged into a dive. The Canadian chased his prey for 15,000 ft and, when the Italian pulled up at 5,000, Beurling let go a two-second burst from 300 yards away. It was a perfect hit. Although he wasn't aware that he had been fired on, when Beurling inspected his Spitfire back at Takali, he found it riddled with bullets. Undaunted, that evening, just before dusk, he was in the air again in a patrol of four Spitfires. Radar had shown two German Ju 88s and 20 Messerschmitts, the deadly 109Fs, heading towards Malta. After the four Spitfires dived and split up the formation, Beurling followed a fighter trying to escape at low level over the sea. After he laid down a two-second burst the German crashed into the Mediterranean.[12]
    On his last combat mission over Malta, while engaging a third aircraft,
    another, taking him unawares, drilled his aircraft with cannon shells from behind. Screwball, injured quite severely by shrapnel, bailed out low down. He landed in the sea and got into his dinghy. Malta's air-sea rescue service quickly came to his aid. L.G. Head, a member of the crew of HSL 128 remembered that when they picked him out of the water he was most concerned for he was unable to locate a small bible that he had been given by his mother.[13]
    Fighter pilots played a critical role in the defense of Malta during its siege. Beurling landed on the island on 6 June, after having flown off the deck of HMS Eagle aboard his Spitfire, during Operation Salient.[14] His nickname on Malta was "Screwball", an expletive he had a habit of using.
    Beurling had his baptism of fire in the mid-morning of 12 June when, flying Spitfire BR170/C-25, with three other pilots from 249 Squadron, the formation intercepted eight Bf 109s. Beurling claimed to have blown the tail off a Bf 109, but nobody saw it hit the ground, so he was credited with a "damaged".[15] After that, Beurling claimed a series of kills that had no equal on the Mediterranean island. On 6 July 1942, "Screwball" with other pilots from 249 Squadron attacked a huge formation of three Cant Z1007bis, 14 Reggiane Re.2001s and more than two dozen Macchi MC.202s. He almost certainly shot down Sergente Francesco Pecchiari from 352^ Squadriglia. Then he claimed another Macchi that crashed near Zejtun, likely the Reggiane of Sottotenente Romano Pagliani, 152^ Squadriglia. He made a third claim that day, a Messerschmitt, hit from a distance of 800 yards. His victim was almost certainly Fw Anton Engels of 1 Staffel, possibly the same aircraft that had been attacked by Plt Off Glen and Flt Sgt Dodd. However, two German pilots reported that Engels was shot down under their "very eyes" by the "really good flak from Malta". So it is possible that Beurling's victim was a missing machine from the II/JG53. Either way, he was credited with three victories in his first proper air battle at Malta.[16]
    On 10 July, his Malta tally rose to five in just four days, making him an ace. That day, it seems likely that he shot down the MC.202 of Sergente Maggiore Francesco Visentini, from 378^ Squadriglia, who managed to bail out, wounded in an arm and leg and was rescued by a CANT Z506B from Sicily.[17]
    On 12 July, Beurling, flying his Spitfire BR565/U, and searching for Plt Off Berkeley-Hill, who was missing, spotted Tenente Colonnello Aldo Quarantotti, commander of 2° Gruppo and Tenente Carlo Seganti, flying Reggiane Re.2001s, low over the sea, searching for a missing fellow pilot, Tenente Francesco Vichi from 358a Squadriglia, who had been shot down in his Reggiane Re. 2001 by Beurling himself about 25 miles north of Gozo. Beurling, with Flying Officer Erik Hetherington 249 Sqn flying cover, dove on the tail of the second of the two Reggianes and downed Ten. Seganti. Then Buerling attacked the other Reggiane. He closed up to 100 ft and just when Ten. Col. Quarantotti spotted him, Beurling delivered a short burst that decapitated the Italian commander. This aircraft also fell into the sea.[18][19][20] But two days later, he was badly shot up from some Reggianes. Beurling's BR130/2-H was "riddled by better than 20 bullets through the fuselage and wings". "An explosive bullet nicked my right heel", he recalled.[21]
    On 22 July, he lost his best friend in Malta, French-Canadian Plt Off Jean Paradis. That morning, Paradis, with fellow pilots from 126 and 249 Sqd, scrambled to intercept a raid some 20 miles from Zonqor point. When Paradis spotted three Ju 88s, he was bounced and shot down.[22] The following day, midmorning, eight 249 Squadron Spitfires were scrambled. Beurling, this time flying EP135/T-Z, claimed to have badly damaged a bomber and, after a long dogfight with a Reggiane, to have blown "his left wing off". The 151 Squadriglia, in fact, lost Serg Magg Bruno Di Pauli. But the Macchi 202 pilot reported to have parachuted down after an AA shell had damaged his aircraft and realizing that he was followed by six Spitfires that, at the moment, had still not fired.[23] 27 July, was Beurling's "biggest day on Malta".[24]. That day, he shot down Sergente Faliero Gelli of 378 Squadriglia, 150° Gruppo (with a score of three destroyed aircraft, perhaps the only fighter pilot to survive an attack from Beurling, he crash-landed between Dabrani and Ta'Kuljiat, limits of Zebbug, Gozo[25]), and immediately after, Captain Furio Niclot Doglio of 20° Gruppo, both flying Macchi MC. 202s, Regia Aeronautica's best fighter. Niclot Doglio, who was diving to counter attack the head-on Spitfires of 126 Squadron and had misunderstood the warning waggling of wings of his wingman, Maresciallo Ennio Tarantola (that had seen the oncoming 249 Squadron fighters from left, high above), was his 14th "kill". Aged 34, Doglio, a famous prewar pilot who held seven international flying records, was an ace with seven air victories, six of them Spitfires, shot down in four weeks over Malta.[8][26]
    On the same day, Beurling also shot down two Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters, one of which was piloted by the "five-kill" (according to other authors, eight victories [27]) ace Leutnant Karl-Heinz Preu of JG 53. On 28 July Beurling was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal, the citation read:[28]
    1267053 Sergeant George Frederick BEURLING, No. 249 Squadron.
    Sergeant Beurling has displayed great skill and courage in the face of the enemy. One day in July, 1942, he engaged a number of enemy fighters which were escorting a formation of Junkers 88's and destroyed one fighter. Later during the same day he engaged 10 enemy fighters and shot two of them down into the sea, bringing his total victories to eight.
    On 30 July, he was commissioned as a pilot officer,[29] and on 4 September won a bar to his DFM, largely for his exploits on 27 July. The citation read:[30]
    Bar to Distinguished Flying Medal.
    1267053 Sergeant George Frederick BEURLING, D.F.M., No. 249 Squadron. Since being awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal in July, 1942, Sergeant Beurling has destroyed a further 9 enemy aircraft, bringing his victories to 17. One of his exploits was the destruction of 4 enemy fighters in one day; during these brief combats he also damaged a further 2 hostile aircraft. His courage and determination are a source of inspiration to all.
    The enervation of daily combat combined with the effects of the poor rations and dysentery were telling. Beurling was bedridden for much of August and September, gaining only 1½ victories in August. On 8 August, while he was shooting at a Bf 109, he was jumped by two more. He claimed that he hit one and that it went straight into the sea. This was apparently confirmed by his section leader. But his aircraft was then hit in the engine and he belly-landed in a stone-walled field. "I climbed out, he recalled, unhurt except for a superficial cut in one arm."[31]
    Beurling hitched back to Takali Field (correctly named ta' Qali, but then known as Takali).[32] On 25 September, he had another successful day, claiming to have downed three German fighters, but on this occasion his victories seem to be "overclaimed". That day, flying with 11 other Spitfires, he met a dozen Bf 109s 30 miles northeast of Zonqor Point. He claimed to have "disintegrated" a first Messerschmitt, to have damaged a second and put in flames a third, that "enveloped in flames, dived vertically striking the sea", the pilot baling out. Two of these victims were two German fighters that came back to base, even if badly damaged and the third could be the one piloted by Obwf Kurt Gorbing (White 11/10551) of 2 Staffel, who made a forced-landing and died shortly after.[33]
    On 10 October, Beurling was testing his newly serviced Spitfire (EP706/T-L) when he was vectored to intercept two Bf 109s, flying line abreast at 1,000 ft over Filfla. He reported to have hit the "starboard fellow" in the engine: "He pancaked right smack down on his belly and flipped over onto his back." The second BF 109 tried to fly away but he hit the gas tank: "The ship blow up, complete with pilot." Those "kills" brought Beurling's Malta tally to 21, plus another shared with two others. But there is no record of a Messerschmitt crashing on the island, on 10 October 1942, nor any German losses.[34] On the morning of 13 October, Plt Off Beurling, flying BR173/T-D, attacked with his 249 Squadron a formation of Ju 88s, escorted by 30 Bf 109s, three miles north of St Paul’s Bay. He claimed to have at first hit a bomber, then an oncoming Bf 109 that burst into flames. Seconds later, he shot at a second Messerschmitt, without observing strikes, “but pilot bailed out”.[35] On 16 October he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the citation read:[36]
    Pilot Officer George Frederick BEURLING, D.F.M. (128707) Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 249 Squadron.
    Since being awarded a Bar to the Distinguished Flying Medal, this officer has shot down a further 3 hostile aircraft, bringing his total victories to 20. One day in September, 1942, he and another pilot engaged 4 enemy fighters. In the ensuing combat, Pilot Officer Beurling destroyed 2 of them. As a relentless fighter, whose determination and will to win has won the admiration of his colleagues, this officer has set an example in keeping with the highest traditions of the Royal Air Force.


    Beurling's Spitfire VC in which he scored most of his victories in Malta
    A teetotaler and non-smoker, he dedicated himself totally to the art of aerial combat. Tending to be a loner on the ground and in the air, Beurling angered his commanders with his disdain for teamwork. His relentless concentration on aerial fighting, led Beurling to develop a marked skill at deflection shooting and together with his "situational awareness", he was soon recognized as a deadly combat pilot. Like many successful Spitfire pilots, Beurling developed the habit of only engaging enemy aircraft at 250 yards or less — a range at which many other pilots would be breaking away. Beurling owed his spectacular success to remarkably good eyesight and the ability to "toss his Spitfire" into violent combat manoeuvres. If jumped from behind, he would pull back on the stick of his Mk VC Spitfire so hard that the aircraft would enter a violent stall, flick over and spin. This was a hard, sudden and very dangerous act for the enemy fighter on his tail to follow. Beurling would also ram both ailerons and rudder into a sudden and violent turn, causing his Spitfire to flip over and drop like a stone. Only a very experienced (or crazy) pilot would pull such stunts more than once or twice. Beurling made them a matter of habit. He knew that the Spitfire could be nursed out of such self-induced trouble and get him home safely.[37]


    Beurling in hospital after his transport aircraft crashed.
    But Beurling was not invincible; he was shot down four times over Malta. On 14 October, 1942 (his last flight over Malta), Beurling scrambled with six other pilots from his squadron to intercept a raid of Ju 88s escorted by 60 Bf 109s, Macchi 202s and Reggiane 2001s just south of Zonqor Point. He strafed a bomber – that he claimed to have shot down - but was in turn hit by return fire from the Ju 88: “I picked up about 30 bullet holes.” Then he claimed to have damaged a Messerschmitt and to have blown the left wing of another Bf 109 off at the root. Seconds later, another German fighter hit him from below. He was wounded in the heel, elbow and ribs, and his Spitfire was set on fire. He managed to bail out into the sea. During this action, no Messerschmitt was in fact destroyed. Only one was damaged in combat, and crash-landed in San Pietro, Sicily. Beurling was probably shot down by Obfw Riker of 4/JG53 or Ltn Karl von Lieres of 2/JG27 (who was credited with his 26th). Of the seven Ju 88s claimed to have been shot down by RAF, only one did not return.[38] After his rescue, Beurling was hospitalized.
    On 4 November he received the Distinguished Service Order, the citation read:[39]
    Pilot Officer George Frederick BEURLING, D.F.C., D.F.M. (128707), Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 249 Squadron.
    Since being awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, Pilot Officer Beurling has destroyed a further six enemy aircraft, bringing his total victories to 28. During one sortie on 13th October, 1942, he shot down a Junkers 88 and two Messerschmitt 109's. The following day, in a head-on attack on enemy bombers, he destroyed one of them before he observed his leader being attacked by an enemy fighter. Although wounded Pilot Officer Beurling destroyed the fighter. Then climbing again, although his aircraft was hit by enemy fire, he shot down another fighter before his own aircraft was so damaged that he was forced to abandon it. He descended safely on to the sea and was rescued. This officer's skill and daring are unexcelled.
    Beurling was then sent back to Britain. On the way, the B-24 transport aircraft he was aboard crashed into the sea off Gibraltar. Beurling was one of only three survivors.
    Over Malta, he had claimed over 27 kills, by far the highest total by an RAF pilot during the campaign.
    [edit]War bond drive


    Beurling signing autographs at a war production plant, January 1943
    After landing back in England, he was then sent to Canada to join a Victory Loan Drive, selling war bonds, being the guest of honour at a parade in Verdun and meeting Prime Minister Mackenzie King. He was promoted to war substantive flying officer (on probation) on 30 January 1943.[40] He did not enjoy the war bond campaign. The leg wound Beurling had received over Malta, combined with his poor general health, returned him to hospital for several weeks. He completed his promotional work in mid-1943 and also met his future wife, Diana Whittall in Vancouver.
    [edit]Instructor
    Returning to England, Beurling was posted as a gunnery instructor to 61 OTU. On 27 May 1943, he was posted to the Central Gunnery School. On 8 June, he was accidentally shot at during a mock dogfight, bailing out of Spitfire II P7913 as the engine caught fire.[41]
    [edit]Royal Canadian Air Force
    On 1 September 1943, he transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force,[42] and was posted to an operational squadron, 403 (a return to his first squadron) at Kenley, flying the new Spitfire IX. Shooting down an Fw 190 of JG 2 in September, but unhappy with flying sweeps, Beurling requested command of a flight of P-51 Mustangs in order to carry out deep penetration, free-roaming raids into Germany. His request was turned down.
    Disciplinary problems annoyed his commander, but he was promoted to flight lieutenant. However, his stunting of a Tiger Moth at zero feet over his airfield eventually led to his wing commander, Hugh Godefroy DFC, threatening him with a court martial; subsequently, Beurling was transferred to 126 Wing HQ and then to 412 Squadron.
    At 412 Squadron, he again came into conflict with his commander for stunting and his lack of teamwork, leading to his eventual grounding. He claimed his last kill on 30 December, shooting down an Fw 190 of JG 26 when the squadron was covering returning American bombers near Compiègne, France.[43]
    [edit]Discharge
    Beurling returned to Canada in April 1944. He was given an honourable discharge in October and, despite an attempt to join the United States Army Air Forces, his wartime flying was over. He ended his career with 31 and one shared confirmed kills, nine claimed damaged, along with a DSO, DFC and a DFM and bar.
    [edit]Death

    Beurling's marriage ended in March 1945, but he was not formally divorced.[44] He survived the war only to find himself unable to adjust to civil life
    In 1948, he was recruited to fly Mustangs for the Israeli Air Force. En route, Beurling fatally crashed his Noorduyn Norseman transport aircraft while landing at Aeroporto dell'Urbe in Rome. It was his 10th crash. Suspicion at the time of the accident centred on possible sabotage which never was proven. "The initial report, while it identified the crew as Beurling and Leonard Cohen (another Malta RAF pilot), acknowledged that the bodies were burned beyond recognition."[45] The funeral in Rome, lacked only one element: Beurling's widow, family, and personal friends were not in attendance. On a small brass plate over the lid of the coffin these words were written "Colonel Georgio Beurling".[46]
    Beurling's coffin was kept for three months in a warehouse in the Verano Monumental Cemetery, as nobody had claimed the body. Then his widow, Diana Whittall Gardner, had him buried in the Protestant Cemetery behind the Cestia Pyramid, between the graves of Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats. In November 1950, two and half years after his death, Beurling's casket arrived at Haifa Airport. His coffin, draped with the blue and white Israeli flag, was laid in a nearby air force base, where an honour guard of young airmen mounted a silent watch. During the long funeral in the streets of Haifa, Israeli Air Force aircraft paid homage to Beurling. At last, he was re-interred in the military cemetery at the foot of Mount Carmel. The grave is marked, as are the others in the Zahal Cemetery, with only name, serial number and rank: for Beurling that of segen, lieutenant.[47]
    According to Group Captain "Laddie" Lucas, Beurling was "untidy, with a shock of fair tousled hair above penetrating blue eyes. He smiled a lot (sic) and the smile came straight out of those striking eyes... he was highly strung, brash and outspoken... something of a rebel".[48]
    [edit]Legacy

    Malta Spitfire, an account of his time in Malta, co-written by Leslie Roberts and Beurling, was first published in 1943.
    "In Verdun the only reminder of the famous son is the boulevard which carries Beurling's name."[49] Beurling Academy, a high school in the Lester B. Pearson School Board in Verdun, is also named after him.
    [edit]References

    Notes
    ^ a b Spick 1999, p. 107.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 185.
    ^ "George Frederick "Screwball" Beurling." acesofww2.com'. Retrieved: 3 August 2009.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 24.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 25.
    ^ Shores and Williams 1994, p. 126.
    ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Beurling, G. Y. (sic), Sergeant, 3 May 1942." The National Archives via DocumentsOnline. Retrieved: 29 July 2009.
    ^ a b Massimello 1998
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 30.
    ^ Lucas 1983, pp. 182-183.
    ^ Beurling with Roberts 1943, p. 140.
    ^ Nolan 1981, pp. 58–59.
    ^ Lucas 1983, p. 183.
    ^ Massimello 1998, p. 62.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 162.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, pp. 188–189, 191–192.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 203.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2004, p. 111.
    ^ Shores et al. 1991, pp. 405–409.
    ^ Beurling and Roberts 2002
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 211.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2004, p. 127.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, pp. 221–222.
    ^ Beurling and Roberts 1943, p. 165.
    ^ Rogers 2000, p. 192.
    ^ Massimello 1998, pp. 53-54, 57.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 229.
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35646, p. 3303, 24 July 1942. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ London Gazette: no. 35712, p. 4116, 18 September 1942. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35691, p. 3861, 1 September 1942. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 241.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 70.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, pp. 206–207.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, pp. 282-389.
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, p. 297.
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35747, p. 4487, 13 October 1942. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ Glancey 2006
    ^ Cull with Galea 2005, pp. 304–305.
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35768, p. 4753, 30 October 1942. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35919, pp. 978–980, 23 February 1943. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ Shores and Williams 1994
    ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36196, p. 4412, 1 October 1943. Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
    ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Beurling, Flight Lieutenant, 30 December 1943". DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 123.
    ^ Nolan 1981
    ^ The rank was in error.
    ^ Nolan 1981, pp. 173–174.
    ^ Rogers, Anthony. Battle over Malta: Aircraft Losses & Crash Sites 1940–42. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-75092-392-X.
    ^ Nolan 1981, p. 181.
    Bibliography
    Beurling, George and Leslie Roberts. Malta Spitfire: The Buzz Beurling Story. London: Penguin Books, 2002. ISBN 0-14-301237-1.
    Beurling, George and Leslie Roberts. Malta Spitfire: The Story of a Fighter Pilot. New York/Toronto: Ferrar & Rinehart, Inc. 1943. NO ISBN.
    Cull, Brian with Frederick Galea. "Spitfires over Malta". London: Grub Street, 2006. ISBN 1-904943-30-06.
    Cull, Brian with Frederick Galea. 249 at Malta: Malta Top-scoring Fighter Squadron 1941-1943. Malta: Wise Owl Publication, 2004. ISBN 99932-52-1.
    Glancey, Jonathan. Spitfire: The Illustrated Biography. London: Atlantic Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84354-528-6.
    Lucas, Laddie (ed.). Wings of war. London: Hutchinson, 1983. ISBN 0-09-154280-4.
    Massimello, Giovanni. Furio Niclot Doglio Un pilota indimenticabile(Italian). Milano: Giorgio Apostolo Editore, 1998.
    Nolan, Brian. Hero: The Buzz Beurling Story. London: Penguin Books, 1981. ISBN 0-14-006266-1.
    Oswald, Mary. They Led the Way: Members of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame. Wetaskiwin, Alberta: Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame, 1999. ISBN 0-9684843-0-1.
    Rogers, Anthony. Battle over Malta: Aircraft Losses and Crash sites 1940-42. Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7509-2392.
    Shores, Christopher and Clive Williams. Aces High. London: Grub Street, 1994. ISBN 1-898697-00-0.
    Shores, Christopher, Brian Cull with Nicola Malizia. Malta: the Spitfire Year 1942. London: Grub Street, 1991. ISBN 978-0948817168.
    Spick, Mike. The Complete Fighter Ace: All the World's Fighter Aces, 1914-2000. London: Greenhill Books, 1999. ISBN 1-85367-374-9
    [edit]External links

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